This faculty was established in 2021 as consequence of incorporating the Separate Faculties of Political Science and Jurisprudence and Law. The mentioned faculties became separate department of the new faculty under the directorate of Mohamad Jawad Mohaddesi. The following information will state more about the departments and Faculty members.
1) Department of Law
The Faculty of Law and Sharia Law in Kabul has 9 members of permanent academic cadre including PhD and Master professors while Faculty of Law and Sharia Law in Ghazni Branch and Jaghori Branch have their own academic team.
- Summary of the permanent council members of the Faculty of Law and Sharia law are as bellow:
- Seyyed Abdul Latif Sajjadi: Graduate of Sharia law and currently student of PhD degree in sharia law and judicial law
- Abdol Bassir Nabizadeh: Master of Criminal Law and Criminology and Bachelor of Law from Al-Mustafa Al-Alamieh Society from 2008 – 2012
- Abdolali Mohammadi: Doctor of Public Law from Shahid Beheshti University – PhD thesis title “Legal Mechanisms for the Establishment of Modern Government and Its Barriers in Afghanistan” – Master in Public Law from Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research
- Abdolkarim Eskandari: PhD student at Tehran University (Campus Qom) in Criminal Law and Criminology – PhD. titled “Rehabilitation in Iran-Afghanistan Criminal Law” and Master’s Degree in Law
- Azizullah Fassihi: Ph.D Student of Criminal Law at Tehran University since 1392, Master of Criminal Law and Criminology from Ahlul Bait University in 2010 and Bachelor of Law from Mashhad University
- Ali Ahmad Rezaei: PhD student at Ferdowsi University in Sharia law and foundations of Islamic law and Master’s degree in Sharia law and Islamic studies
- Ghassem Ali Sedaghat: PhD student of Public Law at Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran – thesis title “Basic Monitoring in Afghanistan and Iraq” and Master in Public Law
- Mohammad Esa Fahimi: Master and Bachelor of Islamic Law and Islamic Studies from Al-Mustafa Al-Almia Society in 2010 and 1997
- Seyyed Ya’qub Arefi: Master of Private Law in 2009 and Bachelor of Islamic Studies and Law in 2005 from Al-Mustafa Al-Alamieh Society
- Academic biography of members of the academic council of the School of sharia law and law are as below:
- Abdol Bassir Nabizadeh
Administrative position: Academic Research Officer
Academic Rank: Associate Professor and Faculty Member of the Law School
Masters of Criminal Law and Criminology and Bachelor of Law from Al-Mustafa Al-Almia Society in 2012 and 2008
- Freedom of expression in law and sharia law
- The status of political parties in international documents and the constitution of Afghanistan
- Political Participation in Afghanistan Challenges and Solutions
- Collateral offenses
- Study and review of hardship cases (Osr and Haraj)
- Cybercrime and legal challenges
Academic Rank: Faculty Member of the Law School
Doctor of Public Law from Shahid Beheshti University – PhD thesis title “Legal Mechanisms for the Establishment of Modern Government and its Barriers in Afghanistan” and Master in Public Law from Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research
- Introduction to administrative structures of Islamic state; 2006
- The basic rights of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan; 2008
- Administrative Law of Afghanistan; Published by Erfan; 2011
- Requirements of the Afghan Judiciary System; 2005
- Freedom of expression in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan; 2006
- Election Monitoring Mechanism in Afghan Law; 2007
- Congress of the United States and the National Assembly of Afghanistan; 2007
- Theoretical Foundations of Democracy; 2009
- Mechanism Election transparent;
Activities and experiences
- General Director of Guidance and Invitation to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, 1994-1993
- Professional member of the Department of Islamic Education of Radio and Television; 1995-1999
- Legal advisor to the head of the Wolesi Jirga of the National Assembly; 2007-2008
- Presidential Legal Advisor to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan; 2014;
3- Abdolkarim Eskandari
Academic Rank: Faculty Member of the school of Law
PhD student at the University of Tehran (Campus of Qom) in the field of Criminal Law and Criminology – PhD thesis titled “Rehabilitation in Iran-Afghanistan Criminal Law” and Master’s Degree in Law
- “Legal Status of Victims of Women in Sharia Law and Law”- Imam Khomeini Institute, 2012
- Personality rights of women; education publication;
- Woman’s family rights; education publication;
- Guarantor of relatives in murder; Qom; 2008
- Ways to Protect Victims; Qom; 2009
- Analysis of the Rights of Victims; Qom; 2008
- Rights of Minorities in the Islamic System; 2013
- The silence of the defendant in Afghanistan’s law and international documents; 2013
- Rights of Minorities in the Islamic System; 2013
- The role of abandoning action in realizing the material element of murder, from the perspective of Afghanistan’s criminal law and international documents; 2013
- What is apostate and what is the philosophy of punishment? 2011
- Guidelines for supporting victims of crime in Afghan law and international documents; 2010
- Impact of false customs on Afghan women’s rights and its solutions; 2009
- Jurisprudential review of the guardian’s permission to marry; 2008;
4- Azizullah Fasihi
Academic Rank: Associate professor and Faculty Member of the Law School
PhD student of sharia law at Tehran University since 2013. Master of Criminal Law and Criminology from Ahlul Bait University in 2010 and Bachelor of Law from Mashhad University.
5- Ali Ahmad Rezaei
Academic Rank: Faculty Member of the school of Law
PhD student at the Ferdowsi University in Sharia law and master’s degree in Sharia law and Islamic studies
- Scientific authority of Ahlul-Bayt from viewpoints of Hanafi; 2011;
- Ahl al-Bayt the Islamic axis for unity; 2011
- Imam Sadiq and Religious Brotherhood; 2009
- Approximative approaches and Idea of the Imam Aazam; 2007
6- Qassim Ali Sedaghat
Academic Rank: Faculty Member of the School of Law
Ph.D. student of the Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran in Public Law – Ph.D. thesis title “Basic Monitoring in Afghanistan and Iraq” and Master degree in Public Law
- “Guidelines for guaranteeing the rights of citizens in sharia law and the laws of Afghanistan”; Al-Sumati society; 2009
- Basic Law of Afghanistan; Imam Khomeini Institute; 2012
- Boundaries of constituencies in Afghanistan; 2014;
- Proactive government commitments against citizens from Imam Ali’s perspective; 2012
- Economic factors of corruption; 2010
- The National Assembly and its function for the Supervision of Power; 2009
- Review of the presidential election process; 2008
- Authorities and function of the Afghan Senate, 2008;
7. Mohammad Esa Fahimi
Academic Rank: Associate professor and Faculty Member of the Law School
Master and Bachelor of Islamic Law and Islamic Studies from Al-Mustafa Al-Almia Society in 2010 and 1997
8- Sayyid Ya’qub Arefi
Administrative position: Head of Department of shria law
Academic Rank: Researcher and Faculty Member of the law school
Master of Private Law in 2009 and Bachelor of Islamic Studies and Law in 2005 from Al-Mustafa Al-Alamieh Society
– Several books ready to publish
- Compulsory Guaranty
- Lawyers in Afghanistan and Iran
- Terms of wedlock from the perspective of sharia law
- The role of reluctance in transactions from the point of view of sharia law
Introduction of School of Law and sharia law
- Establishment of the School of sharia law and Law
The Faculty of sharia law and Law is the first faculty of Khatam al-Nabieen University established in 2007 in order to satisfy the enthusiasts and need for sharia law and human rights knowledge and values. So far, hundreds of committed and thoughtful students have been studying sharia law and law at the undergraduate and master’s level. Indeed, the teaching of laws in the absence of jurisprudential knowledge, somewhat, baseless education, the individual can have right perceptions and valuable inferences that are aware of jurisprudential knowledge. For this reason, this faculty has incorporated jurisprudential texts and rules as much as is required in the main and optional courses of law, and has been named as the “faculty of sharia law and law”.
B. Objectives of faculty of sharia law and Law
The main goal is to produce educated individuals having commitment to religious, ethical and legal doctrines. The real motivation of Khatam-al-Nabieen University and the Faculty of sharia law and Law is provision of pure space for “spirituality and knowledge”; this university and school does not consider itself the only “academic center” but also “the religious-moral center”. Thus, knowledge and value has got similar importance and will make efforts to remain as a pure base for education and spirituality. Of course, knowledge and skills are alike two wings for flight. Therefore, this is to say:
- Standard and specialized education
Disorganized information and even widespread awareness will not work as foundation and beam of progress and upgradation unless it is in the light of the “standardization” and “categorization”. The motivation of the faculty of sharia and law is to introduce the skills of inferences of sharia law and law so that students can emancipate of wandering in modern and complex issues using legal logic and jurisprudential perceptions. Academic and specialized education is an incentive that every scientific-religious institution should consider it as a main goal.
- Practical Training (Skill Enhancement)
Any field of academic major is based on the three pillars of “Awareness”, “readiness” and “experience”; even if the awareness is as wide and clear but without “necessary readiness” cannot go along and cannot pass a desirable and progressive path, that is why the matter of “skill” is raised. In the field of sharia law and law, in addition to knowledge, there should be walking between law articles and legal issues to get preparedness for solving complex cases. The purpose of this faculty is not to provide only “theoretical education,” but also to provide professional training and background for the readiness of students in the field of judiciary, acting as lawyers and other legal matters. In this regard, the faculty has put in place some extra-curricular programs, such as: holding mock trials, law reading completion, visiting public courts, and setting up meetings with famous judges of the of the country.
- Education and Commitment
There is kind of interdependent relation between specialty and commitment; one without another in the pursuit of a successful goal will be lost and helpless. Science will be enlightened in light of value and will illuminate it. Education, along with religiosity and virtue, will make a lawful community. The goal of the School of sharia law and law is to provide the basis for growth of legal expertise in the context of ethical commitment.
Fields of study and courses
Courses of sharia law and law are currently offered at undergraduate and postgraduate levels:
- Bachelor’s degree
In the undergraduate level, the students are supposed to come through a transparent pre-university test and then they are required to pass at least 136 credits during the seven semesters (three and a half years). If required, up to ten optional courses will also be added to the credits. Finally, the student is obliged to choose a specific, needful and practical Monograph subject with the guidance and under supervision of professor and then deliver to the faculty for evaluation; if the student is unable to complete the final research in the seventh semester, the seventh semester will be dedicated to the writing of the monograph.
It should be notified that undergraduate courses at the Faculty of sharia law and Law are organized in a way that after graduation of the student can scientifically run judicial position, defense lawyer and legal counseling. This way has at least two prominences:
First, students have to pass the basic lessons of law, besides gain general awareness of disciplines so that they find wider field of work (not limited to being attorneys or lawyers and legal counseling); Secondly, the student will have more and more options to choose a courses in master’s degree.
- Master’s degree
It is obvious that the Faculty of sharia law and law, after passing two successful graduation ceremony of the bachelor’s degree, had the legal and moral merit of conducting master’s degree in law; in the beginning of the school year 2013, with the help of Allah and permission of the Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan the Master Degree in law commenced. Out of hundreds of applications, about seventy people succeeded after academic assessment in three following disciplines:
– Public Law.
– Criminal Code and Criminology.
– International Law.
The duration of the master’s degree is two years, during this period, students will study 35 educational credit, among them, six units devoted to the dissertation. Now, with the experience of the Master’s Graduation Festival, we can accept only limited students through careful exams, at a rate set by the Ministry Higher education, from a large number of the interests in two major disciplines: “Criminal Law and Criminology” and “International Law”.
Studying Students and graduated Students
The faculty of sharia law and law is proud of competence that successfully beheld the ceremony of two four years of study and two period of graduations. Altogether, a large number of students are happy to have received the graduation suit, and thus most of them have succeeded in finding suitable jobs, or Continued studies in master’s degree at the same University, Khatam-Al-Nnabieen (pbuh). Precisely, out of the 230 graduated students, 149 students (male: 98 females: 51), have received their graduation documents from the Ministry of Education after processing their usual paper works.
Khatam Al-Nibieen University has been able to provide a total of 70 overseas scholarships to those who had already graduated from the faculty of sharia law and law. Thirty-five of them have been studying postgraduate courses in criminal law and criminology and private law for over a year, and other scholars are also ready to be dispatched. Of course, the scholarship process abroad is a continual program of the university.
3. The studying students
In faculty of sharia law and Law, 397 (female: 81 and male: 316) students are studying.
In the first year, 80 students out many applicants, who secured the highest points based on written test and scientific interview, had been accepted.
In Second year, a group of 90 students (male: 73 females: 17) who had passed the course content of the previous year and found the merit of upgrading to the second year.
In third year, there are 158 students who have completed 80 elected credit and recognized eligible to attend higher educational courses.
In the fourth year, students are on the verge of graduation and must pass at least 136 credit so that they can participate in the graduate celebration; at the first semester of the year, 48 males and 21 females, in A total of 69 faculty students deserve graduation. Currently, many students are studying sharia and law at this faculty.
The career outlook of sharia law and law
1. Scientific activities
The graduate of the bachelor’s and master’s degree from the Faculty of sharia law and law will be able to absorb as professors, scientific or legal researchers or professional personnel in private and public sectors.
The graduate of bachelor’s and master’s degree of this faculty can be hired through internship exams which is held once a year by Supreme Court
Graduates of this college can receive a defense lawyer’s license and work as a lawyer and advocate in the community.
The lawyer of the faculty, with full competence, can provide legal advices to public and private individuals of the community.
The graduates of this faculty can act as a lawmaking researcher or writer in the public organizations such National Assembly, ministries and other institutions of the state.
6. Administrative and Law Enforcement
Graduate students of law can work in senior managerial and Administrative positions of the country because they are specialist in sharia law and law and therefore they have the ability to implement and enforce the law well.
C) empowerment programs
In order to enhance the scientific excellence and practical result of the student’s training sessions, the faculty always has the following programs:
- Conducting simulated trials in the presence of well-expert judicial juries of the country and then the mock session is evaluated by them.
- Conducting public law training for all students of sharia law and law for the purpose of farther advancement and expertise.
- Conducting competitions for purpose of getting more acquaintance with the laws of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
- To get students participate in formal court hearings in order to watch the formal trial process.
- Invitation of judges, prosecutors and legal medical experts to lecture and share their exprience to the faculty students.
This department has two separate branches: General Law and International Law & Criminal Law and Criminology.
A) Criminal Law and Criminology
- Head of Criminal Law & Criminology Department
Abdol Bassir Nabizadeh
Education Level: MA in Criminal Law & Criminology
- Administrative Position: 10 Different Positions detailed in Persian section of this website
- Articles: 10 titles included in Persian section of this website
2) Department of Political Science and International Relations
- Head of Department
Dr. Sayed Tahir Erfani
Education: Doctorate in International Relation from Tehran University
Activities and experiences
- Lecturer and Instructor for more than 8 years in several Universities and Higher Education Institutions
- Head of Political Science Faculty in Khawaja Abdullah Ansari for 3 Years
- Head of Political Science Faculty in Khatam Al-Nabieen University for 3 years
- Head of International and Political Science Faculty from 2021 – Now
- Academic member of Department of political science
.a) Brief introduction to members of the Scientific Council of Political Science Department:
- Sayed Abdul Qayyum Sajadi: Ph.D. from Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran in International Relations, 2005 – “the title of thesis was Globalization and Political Islam (with an emphasis on post-Talibanism in Afghanistan)” and Master in political sociology of Bagher Al-ulum University in 1997
- Mohammad Vaheed Binish: Ph.D. from Tehran University of Political Sciences in 2005 – Ph.D. titled “Incompatibility of traditional and new components of Political Thoughts in Contemporary Afghanistan” – Professor in political science at Tehran University in 1997
- Ramezan Ali Fasahat: Master and Bachelor of Political Science from Imam Khomeini Institute of higher Education and Research in 2012 and 2008
- Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mohaddesi: Master of International relation from Tehran University and Bachelor of Islamic and Political Sciences from Al-Mustafa University in 2011 and 2009
- Mohammad Zaki Karimi: Master and Bachelor of Political Science at Bagher Al-ulum University in 2010 and 2007
- Dr. Sayed Tahir Erfani: Ph.D in International Relation from Tehran University
- Scientific Biography of Academic Member of political science Deprtment:
- Dr. Sayed Abdul-Qayum Sajjadi
Degree: having Ph.D. in Diplomacy and International Relations
Academic Rank: Scientist and Faculty Member of Political Science
- Member of the Constitutional Loya Jirga of Afghanistan in 2003 and member of the Council for Disputes Settlement
- Member of the Scientific Board of Mofid University of Iran
- Faculty member and head of Khatam al-Nabieen University of Afghanistan
- Founding member of Afghanistan Strategic Studies Center
- Member of the International Affairs’ Commission in two working terms of parliament
- As a Representative of distinguished people of Ghazni province in the Wolesi Jirga in the fifteenth and sixteenth term of parliament.
- As team member for reviewing the Islamic Cultural Curriculum in ministry of higher education.
- The founder of Noor Ghazna private high schools ((these schools were established in Ghazni in 2007 and currently covers more than 3,300 students.)
Works and Scientific activities
Work experience: 15 years of teaching experience in domestic and foreign universities in the field of political sociology and international relations. Ten years work experience in the leadership of higher education as head of the Khatam Al-Nabieen University of Afghanistan. During this period, the following research work has been done.
- More than dozens of scientific papers and research on international and regional affairs, foreign policy, diplomacy, legal and political issue, and also political thoughts of Islam.
- Eight title books have been published in various mentioned fields, some of which are used as textbooks and used by students and scholars both in national and foreign universities.
- The book of Political Sociology of Afghanistan, three times has been published so far
- Book of Afghanistan and Globalization (textbook of the university) selected in the Scientific Festival of Mahmoud Tarzi held by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan in 2011
- Political Islam Discourse and Globalization in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (Selected by Balkh Book Festival in Iran, 2013)
- Diplomacy and political behavior in Islam (taught in universities of Iran and Afghanistan and used by professors and students)
- The Foundations theory of Political parties in Islam (Selected by Book Festival of Religious Studies in Iran and ranked as a first academic place honoring with superior academic award 2005)
- Parliament, Legislation, Supervision and Delegation twice published yet.
- Deepening methods of political vision in religious sources
- Afghanistan’s Foreign Policy from Amir Dost Mohammad Khan to the Modernization (present era). This book ready for publication and prepared as a textbook of the university.
- The jurisprudential foundations political parties in the political thought of Islam (this book deals with the consideration of modern and new issues of politics, government, party, democracy, and elections from the point of view of Islamic thought.)
- With regard to scientific activities, the author’s succeeded in obtaining the honorary medal from President Karzai. In addition, it is worth to mention his effective presence in the international scientific conferences.
- Participating in international scientific conferences and presenting scientific papers on political, legal, international and regional issues, is another academic activity. Attending more than five scientific conferences by presenting scientific papers, attending tense of international and national conferences for delivering scientific lectures, attending in critique of books and reviewing the scientific work of experts and authors.
The ten years of Khatam al Nabieen private university presidency was a valuable opportunity for the author to be familiar with the latest experiences and management skills in the field of higher education. Currently, Khatam Al-Nabieen University has more than 5,000 students in eleven fields of study, in two different level of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.
This university ranked as second, after the American University, among the various universities of Afghanistan in the first scientific quality evaluation program carried out by the Ministry of higher Education. In fact, it has got the first place among Afghan universities. Yet, this scientific center has graduated more than 500 students from bachelor degree and about 100 students from master degree in the fields of criminal law, criminology, international law, international relations, political science, economics and management, computer science, engineering, medical technology, and Quranic knowledge.
Higher Education Activities
- Leadership and administration of Khatam al-Nabieen private university for ten years, since the establishment up to date
- Preparing and setting the curriculum and course tittles accordance with regional and international standard
- Participate in the sessions for arranging and reforming the Islamic Course tittles at the Ministry of Higher Education.
- Participation in various scientific and advisory programs of the Ministry of Higher Education.
- Preparation and adjustment of plan for renovation and modernization of the MOH, in accordance with the current situation and the needs of Afghanistan.
- Teaching political sociology courses, diplomacy, international relations, research methodology, politics and government, Islam and democracy, foreign policy in both theoretical and comparative fields.
- Prepare books and resources for political science and international relations.
- Holding a Seminar on “Study of the Opportunities and Challenges of Higher Education in Afghanistan”.
- Mohammad Wahid Binish
Administrative position: President of University
Academic Rank: Senior Lecturer and Faculty Member of the Political Science
Ph.D. from the University of Tehran in political science in 2005 – Ph.D. title ” Incompatibility of Traditional and New Political Thoughts Components in Contemporary Afghanistan ” – Master in political science from Tehran University in 1997
Activities and work experiences:
- Acted as adviser for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Tehran, 2000-1999
- Advisor of the Educational and Scientific Committee to the United Nations High Commission for Refugees in Tehran, 2000-1999
- Selected as representative of Afghan Refugees of Iran in the Constitutional Loya Jirga; 2003
- Head of the Center for Strategic Studies of Afghanistan; 2004 …
- Member of the Islamic Association of Afghanistan’s Academicians in Iran
- Afghan Shias in one last past decade; 2013
- Contemporary Afghanistan and the Challenges of Political System; 2009
- The Taliban fast movement; 2001
- Taliban, views and actions
- Islam and democracy
- Fundamentals of unity in the constitution of Afghanistan
- Political participation
- Constitutional Movement in Afghanistan
- Election, Political Participation and Legitimacy
- Seyed Mohammad Javad Mohaddesi
Academic Rank: Associate professor and Faculty Member of Political Science
Master of International Relations from Tehran University and Bachelor of Islamic and Political Sciences from Al-Mustafa University in 2011 and 2009
• Afghan-Pakistan political conflicts and growth of Taliban.
- Political and economic differences between Afghanistan and Pakistan and the emergence and growth of the Taliban;
- The role of elites in the political and social transformation of Afghanistan (2001-2009);
- Invasion of Soviet Forces into Afghanistan and the emergence Al Qaeda;
- Terrorism Strategy: State Security and Individual Security;
- Reviewing the Globalization of Democracy and its Influence on International Security;
- Examining the functional role of the media in national and public affairs;
- Sectarian extremism in Pakistan with a national-regional approach;
- Structural weakness of state-nation-building in Afghanistan;
- The consequence of NATO presence in Afghanistan, retention of security or expansion of insecurity and terrorism;
- Challenges for NATO in retaining security in Afghanistan;
- Theoretical framework, structuralism and post-structuralism framework;
- Investigate the role of media in creating national convergence and sustainable security;
- New changes in the Middle East; Internal structural challenges and security processes;
- The role of elites in the process of forming parliament and governance in Afghanistan;
- Several descriptive-analytical articles.
Mohammad Zaki Karimi
Administrative position: former head of the Faculty of Science
Academic Rank: Senior Lecturer and Member of the Faculty of Political Science
Master and Bachelor of Political Science from Bagher Al-ulum University in 2010 and 2007
- Instability and political corruption in Afghanistan; Quarterly Pouyesh; 2015
Work experiences and activities:
- Member of the Political Studies Association
- Team leader of a working group for holding the first presidential election in Iran
- Introduction of the Faculty of Political Science
Faculty of Political Science
The Faculty of Political Science of Khatam Al-Nabieen University was established in 2009. Nowadays, about 250 male and female students are studying undergraduate courses in two different shifts day and night.
The main goals of the faculty:
- To familiarize the students with political science subjects in different fields;
- To train individuals with a scientific ability that can analyze the social and political issues of Afghanistan and the world and can be effective in the country’s executive agencies;
- To provide professional human resource to the ministries, institutes and public organizations of the country, especially the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Interior and other related ministries;
- To empower the students to understand the academic analysis of global political issues and international relations.
Some basic topics of political science:
The basics and principles of political science, political and social changes in Afghanistan, modernization and political development, political sociology, diplomacy and international relations, foreign policy, global security, the foundations of the East and the international system, political ideas of the West and Islam, new and old social movements …
The graduate’s skills
- The graduate will have the ability of political analysis on domestic and international political issues;
- Scientific orientation towards political analysis of the society in order to consolidate national unity and be able to provide national interests;
- Understand and analyze the views of political thinkers in Afghan political context and product theories accordance with the necessities of Afghan society.
- Absorption in the government body and ministries of the country;
- practical presence in various fields of domestic and foreign policy and also diplomatic system of the country;
- Entrance to the political arena including: journalism, political parties, thinker and political analyst …